Appendix 2


Article contents


1. Statistics Collected by the State

1.1         Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

1.2         Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

1.3         Recent Developments

Notes to Section 1

2. Statistics Collected by Faith Communities

2.1         Established Churches: Church of England

2.2         Established Churches: Wales and Scotland

2.3         Free Churches: General

2.4         Free Churches: Methodists

2.5         Free Churches: Baptists, Congregationalists and Quakers

2.6         Free Churches: Other Denominations

2.7         Roman Catholic Church: Before the Second World War

2.8         Roman Catholic Church: After the Second World War

2.9         Ecumenical Initiatives: National

2.10       Ecumenical Initiatives: International

2.11       Non-Christian Faiths: General

2.12       Non-Christian Faiths: Judaism

2.13       Irreligion

Notes to Section 2

3. Statistics Collected by Other Agencies

3.1         Social Investigators

3.2         Opinion Pollsters

3.3         Academic Researchers

3.4         Print and Broadcast Media

Notes to Section 3

4. Future Needs and Prospects for Religious Statistics

Notes to Section 4

Appendix 1

Select Bibliography of the Religious History of Modern Britain


Church of England

Free Churches

Roman Catholicism




New Religious Movements




Appendix 2

Recent Publications on the 1851 Religious Census of England and Wales

General Commentaries

Local Studies

Appendix 3

Contemporary Regional Studies of Religion as Social Capital in England and Wales

Appendix 4

Church of England Clergy Visitation Returns of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

Primary Sources: Editions of Returns

Primary Sources: Editions of Specula

Secondary Sources: Visitation Process

Secondary Sources: Use of Returns

Appendix 5

Abraham Hume’s Contribution to Religious Statistics and Sociology

Appendix 6

Local Censuses of Church Attendance in Great Britain, 1881-82

Appendix 7

Newman Demographic Survey and Pastoral Research Centre

Appendix 8

John Highet’s Contribution to Scottish Religious Statistics 

Appendix 9

Local Censuses of Church Attendance in Great Britain, 1901-12


Recent Publications on the 1851 Religious Census of England and Wales

The fullest record of the published literature of the 1851 religious census is currently Clive Douglas Field, ‘The 1851 Religious Census of Great Britain: A Bibliographical Guide for Local and Regional Historians’, Local Historian, Vol. 27, 1997, pp. 194-217.

This was reprinted in pamphlet form by the British Association for Local History in 1999, with a short bibliographical update. The present list records all major publications since the text for the 1997 article was completed.


General Commentaries

Evva C. Benson and Cynthia Doxey, ‘The Ecclesiastical Census of 1851 and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints’, Local Historian, Vol. 34, 2004, pp. 66-79.

Alasdair Charles Crockett, ‘Churchgoing Rates in Nineteenth-Century England: Supply-Side Deficiency or Demand-Led Decline?’, Patterns and Processes of Religious Change in Modern Industrial Societies, eds Alasdair Charles Crockett and Richard O’Leary, Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2004, pp. 13-49.

Alasdair Charles Crockett, ‘Rural-Urban Churchgoing in Victorian England’, Rural History, Vol. 16, 2005, pp. 53-82.

Alasdair Charles Crockett, ‘A Secularising Geography? Patterns and Processes of Religious Change in England and Wales, 1676-1851’, University of Leicester Ph.D. thesis, 1998.

Alasdair Charles Crockett and Robin Graham Murison Crockett, ‘Consequences of Data Heaping in the British Religious Census of 1851’, Historical Methods, Vol. 39, 2006, pp. 24-46.

Alasdair Charles Crockett and Keith D. M. Snell, ‘From the 1676 Compton Census to the 1851 Census of Religious Worship: Religious Continuity or Discontinuity?’, Rural History, Vol. 8, 1997, pp. 55-89.

Robin Graham Murison Crockett and Alasdair Charles Crockett, ‘Historical Sources – How People Counted: A Method for Estimating the Rounding of Numbers’, History and Computing, Vol. 9, 1997, pp. 43-57.

Robin Graham Murison Crockett, Alasdair Charles Crockett and S. J. Turner, ‘“Base-Number Correlation”: A New Technique for Investigating Digit Preference and Data Heaping’, History and Computing, Vol. 13, 2001, pp. 161-79.

Cynthia Doxey, ‘The Church in Britain and the 1851 Religious Census’, Mormon Historical Studies, Vol. 4, 2003, pp. 107-38.

Robin Gill, The ‘Empty’ Church Revisited, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003.

Leonard Smith, ‘The 1851 Religious Census and the Unitarian Home Missionary Board, 1854’, Transactions of the Unitarian Historical Society, Vol. 23, 2003-06, pp. 625-8.

Keith D. M. Snell, ‘The Sunday-School Movement in England and Wales: Child Labour, Denominational Control and Working-Class Culture’, Past & Present, No. 164, August 1999, pp. 122-68.

Keith D. M. Snell and Paul Spencer Ell, Rival Jerusalems: The Geography of Victorian Religion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.


Local Studies


Kate Tiller, ‘Church and Chapel: The 1851 Religious Census’, An Historical Atlas of Berkshire, ed. Joan Dils, Reading: Berkshire Record Society, 1998, pp. 90-1.


1851 Religious Census: West Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly, ed. John Charles Cripps Probert, [Redruth: the editor, 1998].


Stephen Greasley, The Baptists of Derbyshire, 1650-1914, Ilkeston: Moorley’s Print & Publishing, 2007, pp. 201-19.


Bruce Ivor Coleman, ‘Religious Worship in 1851’, Historical Atlas of South-West England, eds. Roger Kain and William Ravenhill, Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1999, pp. 228-33.


Michael Beale, ‘The Religious Census of Essex, 1851’, Essex ‘Full of Profitable Thinges’: Essays Presented to Sir John Ruggles, ed. Kenneth Neale, Oxford: Leopard’s Head Press, 1996, pp. 55-73.

W. Bryan Tyler, ‘Religion: Wanstead and Woodford, 1851’, Wanstead Historical Society Journal, No. 29, September 1995, pp. 15-18.


Alan Munden, ‘The Religious Census of Cheltenham in 1851’, Cheltenham Local History Society Journal, No. 21, 2005, pp. 36-50.


Deryk Marshall, ‘The Ecclesiastical Census of 1851 in the Watford Parish Union’, Hertfordshire’s Past, No. 47, Autumn 1999, pp. 13-19.


Isle of Man

‘The 1851 Religious and Educational Censuses’, ed. Frances Coakley,


Religious Worship in Kent: The Census of 1851, ed. Margaret Roake, Kent Archaeological Society, Kent Records, Vol. 27, Maidstone: the Society, 1999.

Margaret Roake, ‘Religion and the 1851 Census’, An Historical Atlas of Kent, eds Terence Lawson and David Killingray, Chichester: Phillimore, 2004, pp. 168-9.


John Dunleavy, ‘“This Church is Too Small for the Congregation”: The Religious Census of 1851 in Haslingden’, North West Catholic History, Vol. 30, 2003, pp. 74-86.


Religious Worship in Norfolk: The 1851 Census of Accommodation and Attendance at Worship, eds Janet Ede and Norma Virgoe, Norfolk Record Society, Vol. 62, Norwich: the Society, 1998.


The 1851 Religious Census of Northamptonshire, ed. Graham S. Ward, Northampton: Northamptonshire Record Society, 2007.


‘The Returns of the Rutland Registration Districts to the 1851 Census of Religious Worship’, ed. Peter Tomalin, Rutland Record, No. 22, 2002, pp. 51-86 and No. 24, 2004, pp. 169-74.


Howard Burrows, ‘Religious Provision and Attendance in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Shropshire’, Council for National Academic Awards (Wolverhampton Polytechnic) M.A. thesis, 1983.

Church and Chapel in Early Victorian Shropshire: Returns from the 1851 Census of Religious Worship, ed. Clive Douglas Field, Shropshire Record Series, Vol. 8, Keele: Centre for Local History, University of Keele, 2004.

Delia Garratt, ‘Primitive Methodism in Shropshire, 1820-1900’, University of Leicester Ph.D. thesis, 2002, pp. 137-56.


John Alexander McPhail, ‘Religious Attendance and Provision in Birmingham and the Black Country and the Surrounding Rural Areas during the Mid-Nineteenth Century’, University of Wolverhampton Ph.D. thesis, 1995.

Geoffrey Robson, Dark Satanic Mills? Religion and Irreligion in Birmingham and the Black Country, Carlisle: Paternoster Press, 2002.


Suffolk Returns from the Census of Religious Worship of 1851, ed. T. C. B. Timmins, Suffolk Records Society, Vol. 39, Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1997.


The 1851 Religious Census: Surrey, transcribed by Cliff Webb and ed. David Robinson, Surrey Record Society, Vol. 35, Guildford: the Society, 1997.


John Ashley Vickers, ‘Religious Worship, 1851’, An Historical Atlas of Sussex: An Atlas of the History of the Counties of East and West Sussex, eds Kim Leslie and Brian Short, Chichester: Phillimore, 1999, pp. 76-7.


John Aitken, ‘Never Before, Yet Never Again: Birmingham in the 1851 Religious Census’, Birmingham Historian, No. 22, May 2002, pp. 24-9.


Census of Religious Worship, 1851: The Returns for Worcestershire, ed. John Aitken, Worcestershire Historical Society, New Series, Vol. 17, [no place]: printed for the Society, 2000.


John Wolffe, ‘The 1851 Census and Religious Change in Nineteenth-Century Yorkshire’, Northern History, Vol. 45, 2008, pp. 71-86.

John Wolffe, ‘Elite and Popular Religion in the Religious Census of 30 March 1851’, Elite and Popular Religion, eds Kate Cooper and Jeremy Gregory, Studies in Church History, Vol. 42, Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2006, pp. 360-71.

John Wolffe, The Religious Census of 1851 in Yorkshire, Borthwick Paper, No. 108, York: Borthwick Institute, University of York, 2005.

Yorkshire Returns of the 1851 Census of Religious Worship, Volume 1: Introduction, City of York and East Riding, ed. John Wolffe, Borthwick Texts and Calendars, Vol. 25, York: University of York, Borthwick Institute of Historical Research, 2000.

Yorkshire Returns of the 1851 Census of Religious Worship, Volume 2: West Riding (North), ed. John Wolffe, Borthwick Texts and Studies, Vol. 31, York: University of York, Borthwick Institute of Historical Research, 2005.

Yorkshire Returns of the 1851 Census of Religious Worship, Volume 3: West Riding (South), ed. John Wolffe, Borthwick Texts and Studies, Vol. 32, York: University of York, Borthwick Institute of Historical Research, 2005.


David Russell Barnes, People of Seion: Patterns of Nonconformity in Cardiganshire in the Century Preceding the Religious Census of 1851, Llandysul: Gwasg Gomer, 1995.


Gary Gregor, ‘Gower’s Nonconformist Chapels in 1851 and in 2001’, Gower, Vol. 55, 2004, pp. 60-9.



Forward to Appendix 3: Religion as Social Capital in England and Wales

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